Kumaravadivelu, begins by providing some personal background information on the development of his macrostrategic framework for language teaching. He explains that he was initially looking for ways to use traditional classroom interaction analysis to make teacher education more sensitive to classroom events and activities. He became disillusioned with existing teacher education programs, which he felt only transferred professional knowledge that may not be relevant to local needs. As a result, he proposed a framework consisting of five macrostrategies supported by authentic classroom data. Over time, he increased the number of macrostrategies to 10.
Kumaravadivelu then explains that he became disillusioned with the concept of method, which he felt was constraining the development of more useful models of teacher education. He turned to cultural studies and began reading about poststructuralism, postmodernism, and postcolonialism. This led him to European master thinkers and immigrant intellectuals, who taught him that the borders between the personal, the professional, and the political are porous, and we are all constantly crossing boundaries. He also notes that the field of TESOL has been marked by a poverty of intellectual stimulus, and he turned to cultural studies for intellectual sustenance. He returned to his parent field with a broader perspective and a better vocabulary to express it.
Finally, Kumaravadivelu explains that his forays into cultural studies led him to develop the concept of postmethod pedagogy, which he conceptualized in a 2001 paper titled “Towards a Postmethod Pedagogy.” In this paper, he attempted to conceptualize the characteristics of postmethod pedagogy, which incorporates postmodern and postcolonial perspectives to critique traditional ways of classroom teaching.
These are the ten macrostrategies that are recommended for L2 learning and teaching. They are not specific to any one theory or method of language teaching, and are meant to be adaptable to different contexts and needs.
1. Maximize learning opportunities: This macrostrategy involves creating as many opportunities as possible for learners to use the language in meaningful ways. This can be done through activities such as role-playing, discussions, and collaborative projects.
2. Facilitate negotiated interaction: This macrostrategy involves encouraging learners to interact with each other in order to negotiate meaning. This can be done by providing opportunities for pair and group work, and by promoting active listening and speaking.
3. Minimize perceptual mismatches: This macrostrategy involves reducing barriers to communication caused by differences in accent, dialect, or other aspects of pronunciation. This can be done by providing exposure to different accents and by encouraging learners to be aware of and tolerant of differences.
4. Activate intuitive heuristics: This macrostrategy involves encouraging learners to use their intuition to guess the meaning of unfamiliar words or structures. This can be done by providing context and by encouraging learners to use their prior knowledge to make connections.
5. Foster language awareness: This macrostrategy involves helping learners to become more aware of the structure and patterns of the language they are learning. This can be done by highlighting grammar and vocabulary in context, and by encouraging learners to analyze and reflect on language use.
6. Contextualize linguistic input: This macrostrategy involves providing input (such as texts, audio or video) that is relevant and meaningful to learners’ interests and needs. This can be done by selecting materials that relate to learners’ experiences and by creating authentic situations for language use.
7. Integrate language skills: This macrostrategy involves integrating the four language skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) in a balanced and meaningful way. This can be done by providing activities that require the use of multiple skills and by scaffolding learning so that learners gradually become more proficient in all areas.
8. Promote learner autonomy: This macrostrategy involves empowering learners to take responsibility for their own learning. This can be done by providing opportunities for self- reflection and self-assessment, and by encouraging learners to set their own learning goals and strategies.
9. Ensure social relevance: This macrostrategy involves connecting language learning to learners’ social and cultural contexts. This can be done by providing materials and activities that relate to learners’ interests and needs, and by encouraging learners to use the language in real-life situations.
10. Raise cultural consciousness: This macrostrategy involves promoting understanding and appreciation of other cultures. This can be done by providing opportunities for learners to explore and compare their own culture with the target culture, and by promoting intercultural communication skills.