Language as Discourse refers to the study of language beyond its structural system and focuses on how language is used in social contexts. This includes analyzing the ways in which language is used to construct meaning, convey social norms, and perpetuate power dynamics.
Mainstream Discourse refers to the dominant beliefs and values that are widely accepted by society, while Critical Discourse is a way of analyzing language that questions and challenges these dominant beliefs and values. Critical Discourse aims to uncover the power relations and inequalities that are perpetuated through language use.
Macrofunctions of language refer to the three main functions of language: the ideational, the interpersonal, and the textual. The ideational function refers to the conveyance of information and ideas, while the interpersonal function refers to the ways in which language is used to establish and maintain social relationships. The textual function refers to the way in which language is used to create cohesive and coherent texts.
SPEAKING is an acronym that represents the six factors that govern successful communication: Situation, Purpose, Exchange, Act, Keys, Instrumentalities, Norms, and Genre. These factors are all interconnected and play a role in the way in which language is used in various social contexts.
1. Situation: Refers to the context in which communication takes place, including the physical setting, social context, and cultural norms.
2. Purpose: Refers to the reason or intention behind the communication, including the goals of the speaker and the expectations of the audience.
3. Exchange: Refers to the process of communication itself, including the ways in which ideas are expressed and received, the use of language and nonverbal cues, and the interaction between the speaker and the audience.
4. Act: Refers to the speech act or communicative function, such as making a request, providing information, or expressing an opinion.
5. Keys: Refers to the linguistic and non-linguistic features that help convey meaning, including intonation, facial expressions, and cultural references.
6. Instrumentalities: Refers to the communication channels or media used to convey the message, such as speech, writing, or video.
7. Norms: Refers to the shared expectations and conventions that govern communication, such as politeness norms or cultural expectations around gender roles.
8. Genre: Refers to the type of discourse or communicative context, such as a conversation, a news report, or a job interview.
By considering each of these components, speakers and language learners can better understand the complex factors that influence successful communication and develop strategies for effective communication in a variety of situations.
Overall, Language as Discourse emphasizes the importance of analyzing language use in context and understanding the ways in which language can both reflect and perpetuate social norms and power dynamics. By analyzing the macrofunctions of language and the factors that govern successful communication, individuals can gain a deeper understanding of the social implications of language use.